Activated carbon – Porous material comprised of carbon fibers or powder that attracts volatile organic compounds in water for filtering.
Acidity – The level of free hydrogen ions in water.
Adsorption – The process of ions, molecules, or atoms attaching to a surface.
Aeration – The circulation of air through water.
Alkalinity – A measure of the neutralizing ability of acids and bases in water.
Aquifer – An underground body of water surrounded by rock formations.
Arsenic – Arsenic is an odorless and tasteless naturally occurring element naturally found in rocks and soil in groundwater.
Bacteria & Viruses – Single celled microorganisms that lack an organized nucleus some of which can cause disease.
Brackish Water – A mixture of fresh water and salt water
Brine – A water solution that contains a high concentration of salts.
Brine Tank – A vessel that stores the brine solution used in the water softening process.
Buffer – A solution that neutralizes acidity or basicity to maintain the desired pH.
Calcium Carbonate – A chemical compound naturally occurring in rock formations commonly found in wells and groundwater.
Chlorination – The process of adding chlorine to a body of water.
Chloramine – A chemical disinfectant used in many public water treatment facilities as an alternative to chlorine.
Clay – These suspended solids may be present in the drinking water if they are not entirely filtered out.
Deionization – A capacitive process that exchanges positive ions with negative ions to remove salts in the water.
Disinfection – The use of chemicals to kill bacteria in water.
Filtration – The process of removing unwanted particles in water.
Flow rate – The speed in which a volume of water passes between two points.
Fluoridation – The process of adding fluoride to the public water supply to aid in preventing tooth decay.
Groundwater – An underground body of water.
Hard Water – Elevated levels of dissolved mineral deposits in the water, such as calcium and magnesium.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) – A colorless, flammable gas that is found in some groundwater and private wells. It is characterized by a “rotten egg” like odor.
Ion – An atom or molecule that contains a positive or negative charge.
Ion Exchange – A chemical process that swaps positively charged calcium and magnesium ions with negatively charged sodium and potassium ions for water softening.
Lead – A heavy metal used in plumbing and fixtures that can be harmful when ingested in drinking water.
Lime Scale – A chalky or powdery substance comprised of calcium deposits that accumulates in plumbing, appliances, and fixtures that use hard water, especially when the water is heated.
Iron & Manganese – An essential mineral nutrient often found in iron but can cause hard water stains when elevated amounts are in the water.
Magnesium – An essential nutrient that helps regulate bodily functions that contributes to hard water when elevated levels are present in the water supply.
Methane – A colorless, odorless, and flammable gas that can naturally occur in groundwater or wells due to contamination from decaying organic matter in the soil.
Parasite – A living plant or animal organism that can enter the human body through contaminated water that can cause illness or disease.
pH (potential of hydrogen) – A measurement of water’s acidity or basicity on a scale of 1 to 14. Neutral or pure water has a pH level of 7. A pH level under 7 is considered acidic, while over water that is higher than a pH of 7 is considered alkaline.
PFOA / PFOS – Perfluoro-octanoic (PFOA) acid and perfluoro-octane sulfonate (PFOS) are man-made chemicals that you don’t typically expect to find in the water.
Poor Appliance Performance – Water quality problems like hard water, low pH, and elevated levels or iron, manganese, and sulfides can lead to poor appliance performance.
Resin – A polymer material that absorbs organic compounds during water filtration.
Reverse Osmosis – The use of water pressure to push impurities in water through a semi-permeable membrane for water filtration and purification.
Semi-Permeable Membrane – A synthetic polymer material containing tiny holes that trap contaminants in water during reverse osmosis water filtration.
Scaling, Staining & Spotting – If you see scaling, staining, and spotting in your coffee maker, dishwasher, sinks, toilets, washing machine, and other appliances, you probably have a hard water problem.
Sulfur – The foul odor is due to hydrogen sulfides in the groundwater or well.
Turbidity – A measure of the loss of water transparency that occurs when high levels of dissolved solids are present in water.
Virus – A DNA or RNA genetic material surrounded by a protein nucleus that causes infection in the person it invades.
Water conditioning – A water treatment agent that aids in the removal of impurities in drinking water.
Water softening – A treatment process that reduces water hardness.
Water Treatment and Purification Systems
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